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International Translation of Driver License
   

Brief Overview of International Driving Permits

The most countries in the world have entered into the treaties that relate to the recognition of driving privileges and automotive traffic. Along with other demands, these international agreements require that countries honor foreign driver licenses under certain circumstances.
For the first time, the term "International Driving Permit" was mentioned in the document prescribed in the International Convention relative to Motor Traffic that was signed at Paris on 24 April 1926.
The governments of Austria, Bulgaria, Cuba, Egypt, France, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Morocco, Mexico, Monaco, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbo-Coat-Slovene state, Switzerland, Tunis, and Uruguay signed that first International Convention on Motor Traffic; Chile acceded to it in 1929.
The 1926 Convention on Motor Traffic contained administrative, customs, and fiscal rules for cross-border, non-commercial motorized traffic, and rules of the road. It determined the form, size, and contained information of the International Vehicle Certificate and International Driving Permit. Thus, the Convention on Motor Traffic governed all traffic on the public road.
In accordance with the 1926 Convention, people over the 18 years age may be issued to have the International Driving Permit in three categories – A, B, and C – differentiated among drivers of light vehicles, heavy vehicles, and motorcycles:
A is issued for driving motor vehicles which the laden weight does not exceed 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.),
B is issued for driving motor vehicles which the laden weight exceeds 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.),
C is issued for driving motor-cycles, with or without side-car.
The International Driving Permit is valid for one year from date of its issue.
Today, the 1926 Convention on Motor Traffic is still valid since Iraq and Somalia only issue the International Driving Permit based on the 1926 Convention.

On December 12, 1943, the Convention of the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic was opened for signature at Washington. That Convention terminates and replaces the International Convention Relative to Motor Traffic and the International Convention Relative to Road Traffic signed at Paris on April 24, 1926. The purpose of the Convention of the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic was to establish uniform rules to control and regulate international automotive traffic and to facilitate movement of vehicles among the North and South American countries.
The 1943 Convention touched upon issues of the vehicle registrations, the exchange of information, vehicle restrictions, vehicle equipment requirements, international vehicle certificate, and international driver licenses (the Inter-American Driving License).
According to the Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic, the Inter-American Driving License contains identifying information about its holder, a photograph of the bearer and a description of the class of vehicle that the bearer is permitted to drive. As the International Driving Permit approved in the 1926 Convention on Motor Traffic, the Inter-American Driving License is issued for each of three classes – A, B, C – motor vehicles which weight with load does not exceed 3,500 kilos (7,700 lbs.), motor vehicles which weight with load exceeds 3,500 kilos (7,700 lbs.), motorcycles, with or without side-car.
The Inter-American Driving License gives possibility to drive in twenty North and South American countries that have signed the Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic, with the exception of the country in which the Inter-American Driving License is issued. The Inter-American Driving License is valid for one year from date of issue.

The Convention on Motor Traffic of 1926 was replaced by the Convention on Road Traffic signed in Geneva on 19 September 1949.
The United Nations Conference on Road and Motor Transport held in Geneva, 23 August – 19 September 1949 terminated and replaced the Convention on Motor Traffic of 24 April 1026, and the Inter-American Convention Automotive Traffic of 15 December 1943 into prepared for signature the Convention on Road Traffic of 1949.
The 1949 Convention on Road Traffic entered into force on 26 March 1952. The Convention related to international road traffic and endeavored to simplify customs, police, and other requirements.
Based on the 1949 Convention, traffic rules, signalization, and marking of roads should be reconciled to a reasonable scope and motor transport and drivers in international traffic has to be admitted on other’s territory by the Contracting Parties.
Every motor vehicle, in accordance with the Convention, was required to have a silencer and equipment to prevent the emission of harmful gases and odors. As to the International Driving Permit, the 1949 Convention required that a valid International Driving Permit satisfy fixed requirements. So, the International Driving Permit has strictly to conform to the format that was specified in Convention’s Annexes.  In particular, it is a booklet with gray cover pages and white inside pages, by the size of 105mm by 148mm, page 1 and page 2 have to be drawn in the national language; the entire last page has to be drawn in French, and so on.  
Unlike the convention 1926, the new agreement allows to give out the International Driving Permit for driving in A, B, C, D, and E categories:
A is issued for driving motorcycles, with or without a side-car, invalid carriages, and three-wheeled motor vehicles with an unladed weight not exceeding 400 kg (900 lbs.)
B is issued for driving motor vehicles used for the transport of passengers and comprising, in addition to the driver’s seat, at most eight seats, or those used for the transport of goods and having a permissible maximum weight not exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.). Vehicles may be coupled with a light trailer.
C is issued for driving motor vehicles used for the transport of goods and of which the permissible maximum weight exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.). Vehicles may be coupled with a light trailer.
D is issued for driving motor vehicles used for the transport of passengers and comprising, in addition to the driver’s seat, more than eight seats. Vehicles may be coupled with a light trailer.
E is issued for driving motor vehicles of categories B, C, or D as authorized above, with other than a light trailer.
From the date of issue, the International Driving Permit is valid for one year from the date of issue.

Done at Vienna in 1968, the Convention on Road Traffic intended to facilitate the international road traffic and to increase road safety with the aid of the adoption of uniform road traffic rules and the mutual recognition of various road traffic documents issued in conformity with those rules.
The Convention contains rules on all factors that influence to road traffic and its safety with which Contracting countries must comply and ensure compliance.
Both the 1949 Convention on Road Traffic and the 1968 Convention on Road Traffic determine the same things: international road transports, signs, symbols, and driving permit, but the latter contains many new additions and clarifications.
The International Driving Permits confirmed by the 1949 Convention the 1968 Convention hold the same information. Despite difference in placement of this information, the major distinction between them is their validity period. From the date of issue, the International Driving Permit of 1949 is valid for maximum of one year, while the International Driving Permit of 1968 is valid for maximum of three years from the date of its issue.
According to Article 48 of the 1949 Convention on Road Traffic, Upon its entry into force, this Convention shall terminate and replace, in relations between the Contracting Parties, the International Convention relative to Motor Traffic and the International Convention relative to Road Traffic, both signed at Paris on 24 April 1926, the Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American Automotive Traffic, opened for signature at Washington on 15 December 1943, and the Convention on Road Traffic, opened for signature at Geneva on 19 September 1949.
The Convention on Road Traffic of 1968 aimed to improve the 1949 Convention, but not all contracting countries of the 1949 Convention joined in the 1968 Convention.
On 21 May 1977, the 1968 Convention on Road Traffic came into force. It has been ratified by 70 countries. Many countries consented to the 1968 Convention later. Countries that have not ratified the Vienna Convention of 1968 may still be parties to the Geneva Convention on Road Traffic of 1949.

The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic has the amendments which entered into force on 3 September 1993 and on 28 March 2006. The amendments which entered into force on 28 March 2006 changed the National and International Driving Permits. From 29 March 2011, the new model of the International Driving Permit is applicable. Its main difference is the new classification of categories. Instead of A, B, C, D, and E categories the International Driving Permit may be issued of A, B, C, D, BE, CE, DE, A1, B1, C1, D1, C1E, D1E categories:
A is issued for driving motorcycles.
B is issued for driving motor vehicles having a permissible maximum mass not exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.) and not more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat; or motor vehicles coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg (1,653 lbs.); or motor vehicles of category B coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg but does not exceed the unladed mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.).
C is issued for driving motor vehicles having a permissible maximum mass exceeding 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.); or motor vehicles of category C coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg (1,653 lbs.).
D is issued for driving motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and having more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat; or motor vehicles of category D coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg (1,653 lbs.).
BE is issued for driving motor vehicles of category B coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg (1,653 lbs.) and exceeds the unladed mass of the motor vehicle; or motor vehicles of category B coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg (1,653 lbs.), where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled exceeds 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.).
CE is issued for driving motor vehicles of category C coupled to a trailer whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 750 kg (1,653 lbs.).
DE is issued for driving motor vehicles of category D coupled to a trailer whose permissible maximum mass exceeds 750 kg (1,653 lbs.).
A1 is issued for driving light motorcycles, motorcycles with a cubic capacity not exceeding 125 cm3 and a power not exceeding 11 kW.
B1 is issued for driving motor tricycles and quadric-cycles.
C1 is issued for driving motor vehicles, with the exception of those in category D, the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 3,500 kg (7,700 lbs.), but does not exceed 7,500 kg (16,534 lbs.); or motor vehicles of subcategory C1 coupled to a trailer, the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg (1,653 lbs.).
D1 is issued for driving motor vehicles used for the carriage of passengers and having more than 8 seats in addition to the driver’s seat but not more than 16 seats in addition to the driver’s seat; or motor vehicles of subcategory D1 coupled to a trailer, the permissible maximum mass of which does not exceed 750 kg (1,653 lbs.).
C1E is issued for driving Motor vehicles of subcategory C1 coupled to a trailer the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg (1,653 lbs.), but does not exceed the unladed mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 12,000 kg (26,455 lbs.).
D1E is issued for driving Motor vehicles of subcategory D1 coupled to a trailer, not used for the carriage of persons, the permissible maximum mass of which exceeds 750 kg (1,653 lbs.), but does not exceed the unladed mass of the motor vehicle, where the combined permissible maximum mass of the vehicles so coupled does not exceed 12,000 kg (26,455 lbs.).




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